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Spirituality on sacred ground: tertiary TESOL program design and delivery with Aboriginal Students from a remote community

AusELT member Marnie Wirth provides an account of partnering with her students to create curriculum. She shares her experiences of jointly creating an academic language and literacy program with Aboriginal students from a remote community in northern Australia.

Acknowledgement of Country

I would to acknowledge the traditional custodians of the lands on which we all stand. I pay my respects to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Elders past, present and emerging. I extend that respect to all on this forum. 


I would like to share my experiences of jointly creating an academic language and literacy program with Aboriginal students from a remote community in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia. I developed the program in partnership with the students to support learning within their various bachelor degrees. Students studied and lived on campus at Macquarie University, Sydney. For most students it was their first year at university and their first time living away from their ancestral lands. 

I will describe the context of learning and how we co-created a supportive learning network. As their TESOL teacher, I’d also like to share what I have learnt so far around the place of spirituality in Aboriginal TESOL practice. 

This post is sectioned under four subheadings: 

  1. Context
  2. Co-created program: Student and Community voices
  3. Considering Spirituality in TESOL
  4. Takeaways

Context: the students and their language groups

To help understand the context and main participants, it is important to introduce the students’ community and language groups. The six students are from a remote Arnhem Land community on the Roper River near the Gulf of Carpentaria, NT, Australia. Some of the students have close kinship to Galiwinku, also known as Elcho Island. The students live on campus studying bachelor degrees including: Business, Education and Performing Arts. 

The people in the community are known as Yugul Mangi and the common language among clans is Kriol. The traditional languages spoken in the community are Alawa, Marra, Warndarrang, Ngandi, Ngalakgan, Nunggubuyu, Ritharrngu and Wägilak. The use of English in the community is used for dealing with outsider institutions, such as government agencies.  For many students, English is their third or fourth language. 

Co-created program: student and community voice

Relationship building

Although I have been a long-term supporter of Aboriginal rights and tertiary level literacy development, as a non-Aboriginal person, I am an outsider to their culture. Therefore, creating opportunities to get to know each other was vital to the operation of the program (refer to the Coolangatta Statement).  We got to know each other firstly through conversation while doing activities like sharing stories about family life, bushwalking, shopping, and organising and decorating our learning space. These informal conversations were powerful in building bonds and getting to know students’ interests and preferred ways of learning. Observation of and listening to the students’ stories, politics and ways of seeing the world was invaluable (refer below to Guideline for Preparing Culturally Responsive Teachers, the Alaskan Native Knowledge Network). Given that family, totemic spirits and relationship are integral parts of interpersonal interaction for these students, authentically fostering the relationship between teacher and students is critical (Scull 2016). 

 How the learning sessions were arranged

The students expressed a desire for 1:1 learning sessions which was a functional way to work on their particular needs. To work on their academic language and literacy, they had 1 to 4 hours of 1:1 tutoring with me per week as well as 1 to 2 hours per week with their discipline specific tutors. Together, the students and I coordinated with the tutors and the Student Engagement Team to create a supportive learning network. Personal learning timetables were created for each student. These were shared with the tutors and Student Engagement Team and copies were placed on the walls in their learning space and in my office.

We also conducted weekly workshops every Friday to work on common areas of need, such as sentence structure, referencing, genre and reading skills. 

These workshops were relaxed environments where students assumed responsibility for the structure/organisation, for instance: background music, start with a laugh, food to share and they asked me to bring along my dogs, which the university supported. The aim was to create a supportive and upbeat environment in the weekly workshops (MacIntyre, 2016 p. 6). 

After the workshops, we Zoomed the students’ community Elders and family members. Given the wide cultural divide between remote community life and the big city university life, meeting the Elders and family members over video link was key. The weekly Zoom sessions enabled the Elders to share their knowledge, such as ways of working with the students. They also shared cultural and spiritual knowledge with me to foster understanding. Visually connecting to the Elders and family in real time reduced feelings of homesickness and supported morale. The Elders also used this time to uplift us all with supportive comments about the students’ journeys to date and the program itself.

It was a time to learn and listen to each other; to check in on student progress, to consider emotional wellbeing, to reflect on program structure and aims, and at the least to catch up on each others’ news. 

Arranging the learning demonstrates a recognition and respect for these students’ Aboriginal ways of being and experiencing the world. 

Considering spirituality in TESOL practice

The term spirituality here is about how we find peace and purpose in our life and relationships, rather than doctrine or formal religion. Spirituality comes from the meeting of the natural and supernatural worlds. The Yugul Mangi believe nature communicates messages, warnings, and hope via spiritual presences, signs and symbols that dwell in nature and dreams. While working with the students, I began to learn more about their spirituality and how it is central to teaching, learning and program development, for example, kinship and community obligations around grief. Sorry Business lore meant the program needed to be flexible to give students time to fulfill their obligations and to grieve the loss of the family member.

Another example is an up-close visit of a willy-wagtail bird. In my students’ Aboriginal culture, a willy-wagtail signifies bad news. As the willy-wagtail danced about in front of the student she tried to dodge it, saying ‘Leave me alone you. I don’t want your bad news’. Because of the distance between community and the university, this sighting led to a flurry of text messages and video call conversations with family members back in the community to ensure all was well and to forewarn family to take care. Signs such as these are taken seriously by the students and the community; hence as a person working closely with the students, I needed to acknowledge this and allow time for conversations between kinship groups. Sadly, within 3 days of sighting the willy-wagtail one of the students’ family members suddenly passed away.

Contribution to TESOL professional development: What are the take-aways? 

TESOL programs will have better outcomes when students’ spirituality and cultural lore are acknowledged and supported in an authentic way (Scull, 2016). Authenticity comes from community and student involvement in the design and implementation of programs. 

  • Reflect on the ways in which spirituality influences your own TESOL practice. For further on this: 
Farrell, T. S., Baurain, B., & Lewis, M. (2020). “We Teach Who We Are”: Contemplation, Reflective Practice and Spirituality in TESOL. RELC Journal, 51(3), 337–346https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688220915647 .
  • Become familiar with key documents on the teaching and implementation of education programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, such as:
The Coolangatta Statement on Indigenous Peoples’ Rights in Education (1999)  
Indigenous Literacy Foundation (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander storybook publications)
  • Increase your understanding of indigenous education globally with documents/resources such as:
The Alaskan Native Knowledge Network 
Na Honua Mauli Ola – Hawai’i Guidelines for Culturally Healthy and Responsive Learning Environments 
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2008)                        


Alaskan Native Knowledge Network. (nd). University of Alaska. https://www.uaf.edu/ankn/ .

The Coolangatta Statement on Indigenous Peoples’ Rights in Education. (2006). In What Good Condition?: Vol. Aboriginal History Monograph 13 (p. 229–). ANU E Press.

MacIntyre, P. D. (2016). So Far So Good: An Overview of Positive Psychology and Its Contributions to SLA. In Positive Psychology Perspectives on Foreign Language Learning and Teaching (pp. 3–20). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32954-3_1 .

Jurgita Antoine. (2013). Na Honua Mauli Ola: Hawai’i Guidelines for Culturally Healthy and Responsive Learning Environments [Review of Na Honua Mauli Ola: Hawai’i Guidelines for Culturally Healthy and Responsive Learning Environments]. Tribal College25(2), 48–. American Indian Higher Education Consortium.

Scull, J. (2016). Effective literacy teaching for Indigenous students : Principles from evidence-based practices. The Australian Journal of Language and Literacy39(1), 54–63.

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AusELT Twitter Chat 13 Oct: Where PD is taking us in 2019

bubbles 4

What events have you attended, and which topics grabbed your attention?

What PD events have you presented at, and on which topic?

What are your take-aways, about changes in your thinking and in your practice?

Join us for a slow-burn Twitter chat all day Sunday, using the tag #AusELT. The topic is timely, given all the PD events this year. Some people in the community are more active on Twitter than Facebook, and vice versa, so a chat on Twitter is a good place to make new connections as well as share resources and thoughts.

This leisurely style of chat means you can send a tweet, read and comment any time from 10am AEDT onwards, dropping in at different times to see what’s happening.

Check the starting time in your zone here.

For links to many of the events of 2019 so far, click here.

New to #AusELT? New to Twitter? If you’re not sure what to do, get in touch with any of the #AusELT admin team on Facebook or Twitter (eg @SophiaKhan4 and @Clare_M_ELT) or by leaving a comment below. Here are some posts that should also help you get started:


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Article Discussion Group: June 2019


Image courtesy of http://kausarbilal.com/book-club-launch-at-south-asian-study-group/

Discussion of the article: From feedback to backfeed: Increasing student engagement with feedback. Bianka Malecka, UNSW Global

Bianka writes:

While the value of timely feedback, whether formative, summative, corrective, confirming, written or oral is no longer contested, there seems to be insufficient focus on what happens after students receive feedback. After all, feedback needs to demonstrate effects and its utility ultimately depends on whether students engage with it. This is not often the case, however.

This sets the scene for her article on making feedback useful and engaging for her students. She approached this problem through an action research (AR) project, noting that a as a UEEC (University English Entry Course) writing teacher she is responsible for 8 hours of weekly writing lessons including Writing Skills, Writing Practice, Writing Workshops and Consultations. She also notes that on average, a writing teacher provides 216 feedback reports in 10 weeks!

In the AR project, Bianka surveyed all her students about their experiences with written feedback. She also interviewed her colleagues to find out what they did. This resulted in 77 student responses and 6 teacher interviews.

Bianka writes:

As for suggested improvements to feedback, seven students suggested marking strengths as well as weaknesses while 10 students mentioned providing increased opportunities for one-on-one oral feedback.
In terms of students’ perception of the most valuable essay feedback, 34% of respondents wanted teachers to correct their errors, 24% would like to have their errors underlined, 16% valued teacher’s use of error correction code (intended to identify the type of error, without correcting it) and only 5% viewed evaluation sheets as helpful in their progress.

Interestingly, correction codes, which many teachers seem to favour, were not preferred by students.

Some questions to get us started:

  • How do you think your students would compare to these findings?
  • What do you think of the examples of feedback tasks the author outlines?
  • Do you practice any other kinds of feedback/backfeed?

Welcome to the voting page of the Article Discussion Group. The idea is for us all to vote for our preferred article from the latest English Australia Journal, read it, and then join in a moderated discussion of the article. Authors will either join in on the discussion, or respond offline to points raised and questions asked, facilitated by the moderator. The discussion will take place on the #AusELT Facebook page and is scheduled as such: June 17-23 is reading time; June 24-30 is discussion time.

The articles are all relevant to many of the contexts in which members of AusELT practice. One is a research article focused on technology-enhanced academic language support for EAP-type programs. Another is an investigation of teachers’, students’ and administrators’ beliefs about an English-only college policy. The third introduces strategies for increasing student engagement with feedback. Each article has been peer-reviewed, meaning that the editor has invited leading TESOL scholars to review and offer suggestions for improving earlier drafts. We have some excellent reviewers who, together with the authors, have ensured you receive the best quality research reports upon which you can make some decisions about your own teaching.

The discussion moderator will orient you by providing a summary of the research design (where applicable) and the overall purpose of the research. The discussion will not only focus on how the article can inform your own teaching, but also on opportunities for further research in any form. It will hopefully spark ideas for improving the quality of life in many classrooms! Each article has an abstract for you to read; after all, just as you can’t judge a book by its cover, you can’t judge a research article by its title. The complete articles are all open access, freely available online here and downloadable in pdf here. The chosen article will be made available as a pdf and available for download on this page.


A developmental framework for technology-enhanced academic language support (TALS)

John Smith

Griffith English Language Institute, Griffith University


Technology-enhanced academic language support (TALS) refers to any adjunctive learning and teaching program that utilises digitally based technologies to support and develop academic English language and skills. Despite its prevalence, TALS has been largely ignored in the literature. This lack of research and exploration is concerning, not only because such a widespread learning and teaching practice has been so neglected, but also because there is real need for good guidance. With the increasing rapidity of change in technology-enhanced education, there is a correspondingly increased need for TALS programs to have a solid grounding in theory, educational design and quality assurance. This paper will therefore briefly present a framework for TALS development that can be utilised across a variety of contexts and settings. It is expected that this framework will be of most use to teachers and developers interested in online academic language learning and teaching.

English-only policy in an ELICOS setting: Perspectives of teachers and students

Yulia Kharchenko and Phil Chappell

Macquarie University

Contrary to growing multilingual theories of language learning, beliefs in the advantages of monolingual instruction in English teaching are widespread and often result in an English-only approach that rarely takes into account the perspectives of the parties involved. This article reports on a study that explored perceptions of a strict English-only policy and its impact on students and teachers in an Australian English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students (ELICOS) setting. In a mixed-methods approach, data from a student survey and group interviews with teachers revealed a discrepancy between generally positive beliefs about the policy and a mixed impact of its implementation in practice. The study also highlighted the limitations of framing a linguistic strategy as an official policy, including the potential for conflict between the teaching staff and the students. The findings have implications for language policy decisions in the wider ELICOS sector and support research on multilingual pedagogy and first language use in English teaching and learning.

From feedback to backfeed: Increasing student engagement with feedback

Bianka Malecka
UNSW Global

Developing strategies to encourage students to backfeed, i.e., engage in the process of mindful reflection and analysis of the meaning of feedback seems to be a genuine need to fast-track their learning. Technology has a vital role to play in this process as it makes backfeed accessible to staff and students so that a longer-term picture of learning can emerge. Using Learning Management Systems (LMS), online platforms and collaborative technologies to provide feedback and backfeed makes it more dialogic and gives students a voice in the process of feedback communication, a voice that they may be deprived of when not given an opportunity to interact with feedback. This paper explains the concept of backfeed and provides examples of strategies to integrate it in the classroom.


So, without any more fanfare, please cast your vote! Closes Sunday June 16, 2019 at 5 pm EST

Poll closed: winning article: From feedback to backfeed: Increasing student engagement with feedback: Bianka Malecka UNSW Global

Your moderator, Phil Chappell (@TESOLatMQ)

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Transferability of skills AusELT Twitter chat 2 June 2019 8.30pm AEST

AusELT Twitter chat 2 June 2019

Fancy joining us for a bit of a chat tonight?

Check the time in your zone here.

UPDATE This chat has taken place – read the record here but will not doubt continue elsewhere. 

There are a number of higher education institutions working with ELT trainers and teachers building capacity of educators working with international and domestic students in non-ELT disciplines here. So, this topic seems one worth exploring.

These chats can take off in any direction but here are some questions that may be thrown into the mix to get you thinking.

  • What skills did you bring with you when you began in ELT?
  • Which ones have you developed along the way?
  • What are the strategies and skills which ELTs generally need and use?
  • What are some examples of these needed and used in another teaching context (non-ELT, higher education or otherwise)?
  • Which of these are transferable to teaching in other subjects / disciplines (non-ELT, higher education or otherwise)?
  • How could this transfer of strategies and skills be facilitated?
  • How about the skills and strategies you’ve acquired through connections with non-ELT teachers and academics?
  • What’s happening in PD at your place re developing skills and strategies (as opposed to building awareness of content knowledge)?

New to #AusELT? New to Twitter? If you’re not sure what to do, get in touch with any of the #AusELT admin team on Facebook or Twitter (eg @SophiaKhan4 and @Clare_M_ELT) or by leaving a comment below. Here are some posts that should also help you get started:

Photo and post by @Clare_M_ELT

Article Discussion for June, 2021

The regular AusELT article discussion is kicking off soon on the AusELT Facebook group. AusELT is a community of enthusiastic, dedicated ELT professionals from Australasia and beyond. Vote here for the article to discuss.

Discussion and communication in the office, teamwork, brainstorming. Vector illustration.

Image: https://www.shiksha.com

There are three articles to choose from for the upcoming AusELT Facebook Group Article Discussion. Please read the abstracts below and choose your preferred article (a difficult task, as they are all worth reading and discussing!). To read all of the articles in full, click here.

Cast your vote at the bottom of this page.


Teachers driving their own professional development: theory and practice 

This article provides an overview of what is considered best practice in professional development in English language teaching by researchers and professional bodies. It then presents a research project investigating how satisfied English language teachers are with their own PD. The qualitative study involved a background survey of 92 teachers and 10 semi-structured interviews. The focus is on the teachers’ satisfaction with their current programs and desired future programs. The findings along with research are combined to make recommendations about how centres can allow teachers to have more input into every stage of professional development programming and become more autonomous and reflective as teachers and learners.


‘She’ll be right’: Development of a coaching model to clear and fluent pronunciation in Australia 

Teaching and learning pronunciation can be challenging for second language (L2) teachers and learners alike. Many people may even adopt that attitude that, ‘She’ll be right’, thinking that L2 learners’ pronunciation difficulties will likely sort themselves out in time. Yet many learners consider pronunciation to be the most difficult oral communication skill (Yanagi & Baker, 2016). To address these issues, this paper discusses two models, Baker’s Pronunciation Pedagogy Model: From Awareness to Clear and Fluent Pronunciation (derived from the work of Baker, 2014) and Kaufman’s (2010) P.E.R.F.E.C.T. model of coaching, and combines them to produce a more holistic, yet pronunciation skill-specific ‘Coaching Model to Clear and Fluent Pronunciation’. This innovative model provides teachers with a well- rounded approach for developing learners’ pronunciation skills while simultaneously taking into consideration the psychological variables that may either enhance or inhibit this development.


Students’ use of digital translation and paraphrasing tools in written assignments on Direct Entry English Programs 

This article considers the challenges heralded by digital technology in relation to the management of academic integrity on high-stakes Direct Entry English Programs in Australia. Firstly, a number of the ways in which students are using digital tools to complete assignment writing are examined. Secondly, findings from a review of academic integrity policies at a group of Australian universities and colleges are presented, showing that they fail to explicitly capture this emerging method of rule flouting. Finally, the implications of this emergent theme are explored as a learning and teaching issue for Direct Entry Programs that requires further investigation.