Tag Archives: conflict

Perspectives on developing a ‘learning organisation’ approach to PD – Part 1

This is the first in a short series of blog posts inspired by Adrian Underhill’s workshop on Developing a ‘learning organisation’ approach to PD, which he delivered at various locations in Australia recently. To find out more about Adrian Underhill, read his recent interview in the English Australia Journal.

AparnaAbout the author:

Aparna Jacob is a first-time Director of Studies at an LTO in Sydney. She is passionate about professional development for teachers and is keen on developing a learning culture at her organisation. She holds an IDLTM amongst other industry-related qualifications.


At his workshop on Developing a Learning Organisation approach to PD, Adrian Underhill highlighted a few key ideas that set me thinking about impediments to systems thinking and sharing learning that most Language Teaching Organisations (LTO) would face. Below, I examine some of the ideas from the session in the context of the LTO I work for and look at a few possible solutions.

There is no ‘arrival at quality’. It is not a rest state that you gain and retain.

Quality is an ongoing and permanent journey, driven by the constant inquiring activity of the organisation.

Like most small-medium private ELICOS providers, our LTO operates largely as an “organic organisation” (Robbins, 2011, p.451) characterised by a centralised head, the CEO, from whom all budgetary decisions flow. Vertically, there are few management tiers and departmental structures are uniformly flat with wide spans of control. Typical of an organic organisation, everybody is expected to contribute to all operational aspects and overall there is a low level of formalisation and structures, procedures and practices are flexible. Yet, within this system, largely due to what Charles Handy refers to as the dominant “person culture” (in White, Hockley, Van der Horst Jansen, & Laughner, 2008, p.36), initiative and quick decision making are the norm and any change is quick to be implemented. Profit, rather than a unifying mission and vision, is the driving imperative on which most decisions are based. Daily fire-fighting takes precedence over “systems thinking”. The LTO’s lean processes do not prioritise intangibles such as reflection, learning and investing in individuals. In such an environment, the term “quality” remains a catch phrase, an ever-elusive and mysterious state that we are constantly striving to arrive at.

How can a team of committed managers with individual IQs above 120 . . . have a collective IQ of 63?

 Peter Senge

The Academic and Marketing/Sales departments are often the two main departments at most LTOs. Conflicting priorities often mean they are at loggerheads over every issue from student recruitment, attendance monitoring to agent involvement. In the absence of a clear goal, not only do departments find it difficult to work together but it’s also not unusual for team members to compete against their teammates, focusing only on individual KPIs rather than the common goal of the team.

Such an environment serves as a hothouse for Handy’s “Person Culture” typical of small organisations. Charismatic individuals, keenly focused on self-development thrive and become indispensible to the organisation. This in turn can also breed an unhealthy “Power Culture” where the person who has the CEO’s ear has authority and can establish their own direct line of communication irrespective of hierarchy. Learning, in such an individualistic environment is not shared to benefit the team or the organisation as a whole. Such an environment instead encourages “knowledge hoarding” where knowledge is gained and not shared so that one’s own agenda and status can be furthered rather than add to the learning of the organisation. Individual learning can be wasted unless harnessed at organisational level.


Systems Thinking is the process of understanding how things influence one another within a whole.

Systems Thinking begins when we see the world through the eyes of another . . . and realise that our own perspective is just a point of view.

A systemic view of your school sees how everything is interconnected, healthily or unhealthily.

The various departments in the LTO are largely autonomous and solely responsible for their functions. For instance, marketing functions are only carried out by the marketing team and teachers are divorced from these activities completely.

This also means there is no real need to interact with the other departments thus resulting in departmental and knowledge silos and thereby the isolation of each department. The traditional dichotomy between the English teachers and Marketing Officers is evident at our LTO and the physical location of the two departments within the building contributes to this lack of interaction. The marketing department is located in the reception area so that the students have easy access to their Marketing Officers. Though teachers walk past the reception on their way to class, there is practically no interaction between the two departments.

This lack of interaction or awareness of one another’s roles results in further disconnection between the two teams and even a lack of tolerance. Teachers often view trial students or agent visits to their classroom and an intrusion and interruption. Without an understanding of the various courses, teaching methodologies or classroom management techniques used in the classroom, marketing officers are unable to promote the schools products, services or teachers adequately. This then results in the marketing team focusing on superficial aspects of ELICOS products like “native teachers only” or “guaranteed IELTS results” without fully comprehending the complexity of the learning products. Teachers, on the other hand, lack the time or training to understand the cultural background of the students in their class and may choose to view them purely as learners rather than as fee paying customers.

Human capital is not just having smart people . . . It is having smart people who are connected up . . .

Recent changes at the LTO have necessitated a few frank discussions between the two departments particularly with regard to communication and identifying causes of miscommunication. Pressure from above to meet common targets has also had a unifying effect and this has forced the two teams to cooperate, understand one another’s viewpoints, compromise and arrive at solutions together. Progress is evident when meetings are solution-oriented rather than a discussion of hurdles in the way.

Involving teachers and marketers to collaborate on meaningful projects like looking at the nationality mix in a classroom and making decisions on student recruitment, or allowing marketers to sit in on classes to gain a deeper understanding of products they sell, can provide opportunities to recognise the contribution of the other team and bridge departmental silo-isation. A discussion at the Underhill workshop has also resulted in the idea of Marketing Officers sitting in on classes with a few key observation areas in mind and use their understanding from these observations to better promote the courses. A meet-and-greet for marketers and teachers will also be held in the following months where teachers will develop a better understanding of the cultural background, learning styles and expectations of certain student groups.

Learning becomes not just something that staff do for themselves or for the benefit of the clients . . . but something that everyone does for the flourishing of the system itself.

A small LTO like mine is keenly focused on short term goals and immediate gains rather than developing a sustainable long term approach that involves investing in their human capital. Knee-jerk reactions and seeking quick-fix solutions to problems is the norm and this often results in unforseen long-term costs being incurred by the company. Responding to daily crises takes precedence over Systems Thinking habits like reflecting on our actions and consequences, examining our mental models more deeply, and seeing how our structure affects our behaviour patterns. Such reflection is essential to all LTOs as it will reveal the learning opportunities that lie just below the surface of everything we already do and transform the organisation into a learning “hot-house”.

The first step towards this is harnessing in-house expertise and sharing this knowledge that has already been developed using the time and resources of the company. There are no “universal” solutions to “local” situations. Therefore we need to be guided by knowledge and experience from the people in the local situations . . .

We need to develop local knowledge that follows the contours of the setting and circumstances we are in.

Honest inter-departmental conversations about working towards our shared goal, once identified, are an excellent starting point. Clarity of where we want to be means we can recruit the right people who can join us on the journey and help us get there. Any failures encountered on the way would only be opportunities for further joint learning. This way the entire school and its activities transform into an adventure park for everyone’s learning.


References and further reading

NB: You can see the slides from see Adrian Underhill’s presentation by clicking here

Pickering, G. 1999. “The learning organisation: an idea whose time has come? ELT Management Number 27. Available from: http://lamsig.iatefl.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/2-Pickering-The-Learning-Organisation-2.pdf

Robbins, S.P. 2011. Organizational Behaviour. 6th ed. Pearson Australia.

White, R., Hockley, A., Van der Horst Jansen, J., & Laughner, M. 2008. From Teacher to Manager: Managing Language Teaching Organizations. Cambridge University Press.


This post by @aparnajacob

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the individuals, and not those of #AusELT in general or of English Australia.








#AusELT chat summary: Dealing with students as ‘clients’ (2nd May, 2013)

This month’s chat was a heartfelt one for those of us who have struggled to walk the line between what (paying) students want/expect and the pedagogical realities of what they need.  Many thanks to first-time summariser Andrea Rivett (@andrea_rivett) for disentangling the key points so neatly. The whole transcript is available on Andrea’s Storify here.

Vintage Balance ScaleThis is a summary of a #AusELT Twitter chat that took place on the 2nd May 2013, 8.30pm AEST. The discussion focused on dealing with students as ‘clients’ in various English language teaching contexts. If you’re keen to find out more about #AusELT, please join the discussion on the first Thursday of the month and join the #AusELT Facebook page. Looking forward to seeing you there soon… 🙂

Teaching contexts represented

The learning and teaching contexts represented in the chat were ELICOS, VET, private schools and schools. Participants were from Australia and Dubai.

Who are the ‘clients’?

It seems that the answer to this question depends on who is asked.  “T’s NEVER call sts “clients” – but to sales/ management they often are. This affects their expectations.” @SophiaKhan4

Other responses included parents, previous learning institutions, future learning institutions and agents.

The big issues in the student/client discussion were seen as:                  

  • Wanting/expecting individualized programmes
  • Different end goals
  • Varying motivational factors
  • What have students been promised (before arrival)?
  • Pressure/blame on teachers for not meeting demands
  • Entry level/needs not appropriate for timing of end goal
  • Financial and emotional investment
  • Lack of student input in regards to their own progress/goals (passive not active learners)
  • Management supporting students’ needs and not teachers’ needs
  • Outside pressures for students – parents, institutions, agents
  • Parents considering teachers as ‘employees’
  • In some cultures it is acceptable to demand and expect more from the teacher


A unified front

“…we do need to manage expectations btween ss/teachers/management” (@NailahRokic)

“…a clear consistent msg from managers & Ts from the start can preempt a lot of problems” (@SophiaKhan4)

“…the college must be consistent with reponse to pressure” (@Eslkazzby)

“Educating sales people, Ts and management about realistic expectations” (@Eslkazzby)Wooden mannequins pushing puzzle pieces into the right place

For the teacher

“We need to consider their previous learning experiences” (@andrea_rivett)

“Managing expectations and regular consistent academic counselling” (@Eslkazzby)

“Sometimes it’s the dynamic/pace in the class so I move students to another class at the same level” (@Eslkazzby)

“U should be able 2 identify & congratulate sts on their strengths & be specific on what needs work.” (@SophiaKhan4)

In regards to testing

“Don’t just accept offshore testing. Test again on arrival. Use speaking test to discuss goals.” (@Penultimate_K)

“We can’t be ruled by exit evals. I do evals every 3 mnths between tests 2 avoid risk of bias.” (@Eslkazzby)

For the learner

“In my experience, if Ts and mgmt can provide clear and specific reasons why, e.g. a student can’t level up, Ss are often satisfied …Ss need to know that professionals are tracking their progress carefully, rather than just letting them languish in wrong class.” (@ElkySmith)

This summary by @andrea_rivett

Update: Further reading

Article on The Conversation website by Geoff Sharock, Program Director at the University of Melbourne: ‘Students aren’t customers…or are they?‘ 9 May 2013. Spotted by Phil Chapell, @TESOLatMQ

Great blog post that will strike a chord with many: “I want to change my level” by Tyson Seburnt (@seburnt)